Endowment Fund-UAF congratulates the Authors, Editors and Managing Editors on successful completion of the Multi-authored Book Writing Project. USDA Endowment Fund at UAF has embarked upon an ambitious ‘Books Project’ to provide reference texts and to occupy our space as a knowledge powerhouse. It is intended that the UAF books shall be made available in both paper and electronic versions for a wider reach and affordability. The Managing Editors have personally overseen the entire process of short listing of the topics, assemblage of authors, review of contents and editorial work. This series of books cover a very broad range of subjects from theoretical physics and electronic image processing to hard core agricultural subjects and public policy. It is hoped that the books produced here will find a wide acceptance across the country and overseas. That will serve a very important purpose of improving quality of teaching and learning. The reference texts will also be equally valued by the researchers and enthusiastic practitioners. Hopefully, this is a beginning of unleashing the knowledge potential of UAF which shall be continued.

Horticulture Science and Technology

Horticulture is an important branch of agriculture which comprises fruits, vegetables, flowers and medicinal plants. Because of higher returns per unit area, horticultural crops have great scope for growers, marketmen, and exporters. In this field, different new business avenues are being opened such as production of high quality fruits and vegetables for export, vegetable forcing, micro propagation, production and marketing of vegetable and flower seeds, cultivation of cut-flowers, foliage plants, and mushroom production. As most of the horticultural products are perishable in nature and demands careful handling during harvesting, packaging and supply chain; hence, postharvest management of horticultural produce is also attracting entrepreneurs for investment. Keeping in view the recent technological developments in this sector on the globe, there was need to document updated information about various aspects of horticultural sciences. Therefore, this book provides insight in to basics as well as advances of breeding, genomics and biotechnological aspects, seed production, propagation, and nursery establishment of various horticultural crops. It also elaborates the up-to-date foundation information for organic and protected horticulture, landscaping, mushroom production, and technological solutions of various postharvest problems of horticultural crops. This book is a valuable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the field of horticulture production, seed science, postharvest technology, as well as for amateurs interested in landscaping and gardening.

Poultry Production Technology

Poultry is the most capital intensive sector in animal agriculture fulfilling protein needs of humans in the form of meat and eggs. Poultry industry runs on modern scientific lines using innovative ideas and technologies. Poultry sector is using recent technologies for production of meat and egg to cater needs of increasing human population. In this book leading scientists in the field of poultry science describe basic principles of breeding, housing, production, processing, value addition and marketing of poultry. This book is a ready reference for understanding principles of poultry production, new trends in housing systems, feeding, watering, ventilation, temperature control, processing and poultry welfare. The book describes various aspects of poultry industry, breeding, incubation, hatchery management, housing, equipment, farm management, feeding, hygiene, disease prevention, processing and IT application in poultry production. This is a valuable source of information for scientists, teachers, students, farmers and industry personnel in the field of poultry.

A Textbook on Thallose Autotrophs

The autotrophs are primary producers in the food chain. More than 90% of the global photosynthesis takes place in the aquatic environments. Algae and seaweeds are mainly responsible for this. Along with algae, other Thallose organisms such as lichens and bryophytes, comprising a significantly large number of living species, are also crucial in the world primary production and ecological implications. Thus, to acquire and disseminate the knowledge of these organisms is pivotal. Imparting knowledge about the lower autotrophs is an essential component of curricula from higher secondary to graduation levels. This book presents a quantum of knowledge on the cell architecture, distribution, taxonomy, reproduction and economic aspects of' Thallose Autotrophs'. The book has been split into four parts; Phycology, Lichens, Bryophytes and Economic Importance of Thallose Autotrophs. The target readerships are students, researches, faculty and relevant stakeholders in the fields of botany, agriculture, ecology. The textbook will purportedly broaden the knowledge base of the target audience in an emphatic manner. Nonetheless, the authors will appreciate constructive criticism on the subject matter for incorporating the suggested improvements in the next editions.

Farm Waste Management and Disposal Systems

Management and disposal of rural waste has been a problem since ancient time. In spite of open land space in villages, the people suffer from several diseases due to poor sanitary conditions. The poorly planned houses and drainage system, mismanaged disposal of vegetative, animal, domestic and human wastes are the chief contributing factors to rural pollution. Management and disposal of farm/rural waste cannot be segregated from each other. Farm waste management can be associated with control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of waste in a manner based on best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetic and other environmental considerations. Farm waste management also includes the administrative, financial, legal planning and engineering function involved in solution to address the problem caused by rural waste. This book will be very useful for students, scientists, scholars, researchers and engineers in the discipline of agriculture and allied sciences, agricultural engineering, environmental engineering, food engineering, energy resources engineering, public health engineering, dairy and farm managers, research and extension worker, rural industries and rural sanitation. The book carries a summary of various disposal systems of plant, animal and animal byproduct, domestic and rural industrial waste, generated in the rural areas both from sanitary and economic point of view. This book will suggest cheap and simple technologies for the management and disposal of rural waste.

Soil Science Concepts and Applications

Soil provides the foundation of agriculture and is important for global food security. Soil ensures supply of feed, fiber, field and provide different ecosystem services. Soil inhabitants are at least one fourth of living organisms which sustains soil biodiversity. Soil is the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon and is instrumental in climate change mitigation and adaptations. However, due to burgeoning population, urbanization and industrialization, soil resources are threatened and require attention for protection on sustainable basis. Pakistani soils are alkaline-calcareous in nature which are developed from alluvial deposits. These soils are confronted with variety of problems like salinity/sodicity, water-logging, nutrient depletion and soil erosion. These problems are deteriorating the soil productivity. Management of the soils to control these problems is pre-requisite for sustainability of agriculture and environment. This book highlights the importance of soil as an important and non-renewable natural resource, its formation, classification, physical, chemical and biological properties, fertility status, reclamation and management of salt-affected and eroded soils. This book will help the learners to understand basic concepts of Soil Science and their application in the field of agriculture and environment.

Economics for Business Managers

This provides basic knowledge about economics, economic decision making, economic systems, markets, financial markets with special reference to Pakistan. The book also covers the fundamental principles underlying the banking system and unemployment issues in Pakistan and their possible solutions. It is based on Pakistani data unique for the students in business administration and agricultural sciences who are beginners in the subject of economics. The readers will be able to easily learn the principles of economics by focusing on the examples and data pertaining to Pakistan. They will also familiarize themselves with emerging issues such as inflation, un-employment, trade imbalances, and financial crisis. Book in hand can serve as a text book in the courses on economics for the students of economics, business administration and agricultural sciences. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the field of Economics.

Effective Reading and Academic Writing Skills

This book truly manifests authors' sincere effort in addressing common communication issues which the learners of agriculture, basic and social sciences' students are faced with. The material presented in the book is authentic and of requisite standard. It presents with exercises and activities which help learners achieve the necessary proficiency of the field. The authors of the book have included grammatical structures, vocabulary, comprehension exercises, and authentic material on communication. The writing techniques and relevant formation of the text at hand into paragraphs and composition with easy to follow tasks and situations also make the book valuable. The book provides proper guidance in writing technical reports, official letters, organizational memorandum, agenda description and minutes of the meetings as well. The book will surely help nurture linguistic awareness among the students aspiring for good presentation and overall professional skills. It contains content and substance that may help learners to be more proficient and autonomous. The vocabulary list provided in the book is relatively adequate for communicating learners concerns in a professional and skilled manner

Recent Research Trends in Physics

Physics is an experimental science that relies on research. It is connected to different fields of science practically and theoretically. In this book, leading scientists in the field describe the basic principles of Physics, and synthesize recent research trends in Physics research and development. This book covers some research trends in the field of Physics including the mathematical simulation based research, advanced analytical techniques like THz spectroscopy, electro kinetics and Radiation Dosimetry which is helpful in measuring the radiation dose. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the field of Physical sciences. The students of postgraduate degree in Physics carry out a Project. Research Projects may be experimental, theoretical, computational or a combination of these. This book is intended to draw together many of the research fields to help students for their research work.

Sustainable Insect Pest Management

Hunger and food shortage is a widespread and growing phenomenon of the world that needs to be managed. The future of crop production is threatened by the incidence on insect pests and emergence of pest resistance. Over-reliance on chemicals to control insect is associated with ecosystem contamination and additional hazardous effects. The sustainable agriculture productivity and food security can be improved by using innovative and efficient crop production and protection technologies and ameliorating the important limiting factors in agriculture system. Sustainable IPM emphasize anticipating pest problems followed by simultaneous integration of different approaches. This book will serve as an indispensable and valuable reference material on sustainable management of economic insect pests and would be of paramount significance for the academia, research communities, students, extension workers and other stakeholders. It consists of ten chapters written on various aspects of sustainable insect pest management.

Textbook of Applied Forestry

Trees in the forests or in other forms such as agroforests and urban forests provide many quantifiable and qualitative services to human kind and life forms. High deforestation rate throughout the world and especially in Pakistan is alarming and resulting in environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. Tree-environment interactions are needed to be understood to protect this oxygen liberating factories on the Earth and for sustainable provision of direct products and indirect services from trees. In this book, eminent national and international scientists have described the importance of forests, current status, forest types in Pakistan and future strategies to increase forest cover in Pakistan. Among other services, potential of forests for ecotourism and carbon sequestration have also been discussed. This book also gives pertinent information regarding the functioning of trees, their role in ecological processes and potential of agroforests and urban forest to fulfill the future wood and non-wood demands. Scientifically advanced methods have been illustrated to prepare disease free planting material in nursery, techniques to plant a tree on normal and/or degraded soils and tree protection from diseases and vertebrate pests. This book is an invaluable source of information for students, academia and researchers in the field of Forestry, Agroforestry, Agriculture, Environmental sciences. Botany, Tree pathology, Tree physiology and climate change.

Financial Management Practices in Pakistan

Pakistan is an emerging economy in the region where financial management practices have been evolving. Finance is the life blood of any organization which requires proper management. Organization is composed of comprehensive set of systems but financial system is one of the most complex and closely interlinked with financial markets, institutions, practices, agents and transactions that assist to manage the organizational structure. Despite the capitalism and interest based constraints in the macroeconomic structure, it is needed to understand the basic principles of new mega market financial structures. In this book leading financial economist in the field discussed the basic principles of financial management practices and shared their experience in different exercises, cases and problems prevailing in the context of Pakistan. This text book strengthens the understanding of computational financial techniques and methods to resolve the basic and real time problems faced by the enterprises of Pakistan. The book narrates various elements of financial management practices and highlights the financial analysis associated with the Pakistani companies and focus on valuation, capital structure determinant, working capital management and financial planning. This book is a precious source of information for financial economists, investors, researcher, teachers and students in the field of finance.

Fundamentals of Pathology

This book has been written with the objective to provide the students an updated information on the subject of basic pathology. The authors had in mind the curriculum of the undergraduate degree program. The student of pathology will apprehend the information with much ease. The teachers will also find it highly suitable not only to prepare their talks, but to ask the students to find further details from this book as it is always difficult to elaborate every concept written under each topic. The teachers can give certain basic concepts and ask the students to read from the book and discuss in future classes.

Handbook of Food Science and Technology

Food is a basic need of life. Today, in spite of having high crop yields in many countries, a considerable population of world is malnourished. So, there is continuous need to ensure the food security by sharing expertise of food production, postharvest as well as processing and preservation technologies. The importance of food science and technology lies in the fact of having potential to provide food to the ever increasing population through scientific preservation, eliminating losses, availing wholesome and nutritious food. High quality products from non-premium raw material can be produced by innovation, value addition, appropriate processing, preserving and packaging technologies and also from spin-offs and residue waste using integrated approach. Handbook of Food Science and Technology provides detailed insights about processing and preservation aspects of different food groups. A comprehensive discussion about microbiology, safety and quality related issues provide a broader vision of food science and technology. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the fields of food science, processing and quality assurance.

Molecular Basis of Life

Molecular biology emerged after the DNA structure was unraveled. The scientific evolution has been riven by the contributions of scientists of various realms such as biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics. Now this subject has matured, enough to present the material in a comprehensive way that will be helpful for the students to look into the depth of knowledge of this field for its application in finding the solution to challenges related to agriculture, health and industry. It also covers the core of molecular genetics.

Digital Image Processing

Digital image processing deals with the computerized processing of the data which comes in the form of digital images. Owning to the great potential and the diversity of the applications in different domains, the field of digital image processing has established its deep roots as one of the most important subject in the realm of ever growing computer science. The facility to perceive the image as data has seen the development of useful applications in the fields of science and engineering, medical, remote sensing, military, space, environment, security, search and rescue, agriculture, and industry. Over the recent years, the development of the new algorithms to process the images and the videos has given rise to the advance form of digital image processing, i.e., computer vision or machine vision. This has been at the core to design and develop the systems to exhibit artificial intelligence. This book is written to provide the readers, the important concepts of digital image processing with sufficient theory and mathematical background. The simply explained topics such as the human visual system, the principles of imaging system, image enhancements, segmentation, feature extraction, frequency domain processing, filtering and processing of the color images provide a deep insight to understand and master the basics of the subject for the beginners and for the professional.

Agribusiness Management in Pakistan

Agriculture, the economic base of Pakistan is undergoing transformation towards market oriented business practices. Changing consumer preferences, expanding product and services variety, increasing competition, escalating public sector regulations and improving access to market information and knowledge are some of the determining factors setting pace and direction of development in this sector. Scanty and limited literature is available on changing face of agribusiness which stimulates the need for writing books and manuscripts. This book addresses this gap wherein recognized authors from national and international levels contributed their thoughts, experiences and knowledge about different aspects of agribusiness. This book is a ready reference on principles and practices of agribusiness and reinforces the understanding of these concepts to organize and manage sustainable and profitable food production systems. The book further narrates underlying economic forces and marketing practices, theory of price determination, HRM principles and practices, financial management, value chain management and total quality management. It includes material on major agro-based industries of Pakistan and also presents this sector in context of changing global practices. This book is a modest effort to provide a source of information for teachers, students and researchers in the fields of agribusiness, marketing, agriculture economics and other disciplines related to agriculture.

Applied Irrigation Engineering

This volume of the book addresses the irrigation system of Pakistan and its applied aspects relevant to the irrigation engineering and agricultural disciplines. The subject matter comprises information regarding the advances in water resources development, Indus Basin Irrigation System- Treaties, Accords and Issues; Irrigation System Management at Federal and Provincial levels, water laws, water measurement techniques, GIS application to Water Resources Management, Groundwater and Pumping Systems, Water Quality, Land Development, Land Leveling, Irrigation Methods-Basin, Border, Furrow and High Efficiency Irrigation Systems, Drainage of Agricultural Lands, Modeling Approach to Water Resource Management and Economics of Irrigation Water. The book also presents irrigation scheduling guidelines and performance parameters with example calculations to assess the amount and time of irrigation applications. This book has been designed to facilitate the professionals and farmers involved in agriculture and irrigation practices for crop production. The manuscript is the outcome of contributions from highly quailed and experienced national as well as international professionals involved in teaching, research and field activities in irrigation and drainage of agricultural lands.


As a discipline, 'Agricultural and Resource Economics' can be explained in terms of the application of economic theory to agriculture. Although many publications on the application of economic theory to agricultural sector arc available, no single book provides a holistic view of agricultural and resource economics in Pakistan. In this book, leading scientists in the field describe the basic principles of agricultural and resource economics. The book describes various elements of economics and their practical implications on agricultural sector of Pakistan. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the fields of agricultural and resource economics.

Plant Breeding

Plant breeding contributes substantially to greater agricultural productivity. It is accomplished not only by the breeding of higher yielding cultivars but also by the development of resistance against various stresses. The probable future of plant breeding can perhaps best be illustrated by an examination of the contribution it has made in the past. In this book, theoretical information about various aspects of plant breeding is described in fifteen chapters. These chapters deal with the basic concepts of plant breeding and its assisting approaches genetics, genomics, mutation breeding, molecular breeding and biometry. It is different from other books on plant breeding as it also provides the inclusive information about experimental considerations, biometrical approaches, seed management, genome based plant breeding and a crucial issue intellectual property rights. A historical approach has been presented in many places to show the continuity and progress of plant breeding and to encourage the reader's interest. The comprehensive material is supported by a multitude of illustrations, references and examples in every chapter. It also provides specific experiments in order to avoid abstractness and widen interest. This book is unique source of information for researchers, teachers and students in the field of Plant Breeding, Biotechnology, Crop Science and Seed Science

Reproductive Health Management in Camel

Camel is gaining popularity in many countries of the world. It occupies a unique place among animals of the tropical and sub¬tropical regions. Geographically, camels are distributed throughout the Western Asia, North Africa, Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, Australia, parts of USA, the Caribbean and Southern Africa. Camel is a multi-purpose animal and can be utilized as a beast of burden to carry people and heavy loaded carts too far off places, plough the fields, and as a source of milk, meat and recreation. In this book, leading scientists in the subject have precisely described the basic concepts of anatomy and physiology of male and female camels. This book is a ready reference on reproductive physiology and health management in camels, as the authors have described their experiences in handling and management of reproductive and infertility problems in animals of both sexes. Moreover, possible applications of various modern reproductive biotechnologies in the reproductive health management of the camel have also been highlighted. In brief, the book is an invaluable source of information for teachers, students, technicians and scientists working in the areas of veterinary sciences and animal husbandry, with special reference to camel health and production.

Islami Nizam-e-Zindagi



This book includes the basic information on the availability of irrigation water as well as advanced technologies and practices of irrigation and drainage to fulfill the professional needs of graduating students in the field of engineering and agriculture as well as for the professionals engaged in the field. Design and operational and management aspects of the irrigation system have also been presented that may be utilized by educational, research and implementing institutions of the country. The Knowledge based information presented on Irrigation and Drainage practices, has been used successfully by many higher level educational institutions dealing with water resources, irrigation, drainage and agriculture in general, during last past 2 decades and is further expected to meet the needs of graduating scientists and engineers in their endeavor of hunting professional career positions.

Agricultural Risks Management through Collective Actions

Agricultural sector is exposed to various risks and uncertainties which prompt the deterioration from production till marking and even thereafter. There is a dire need to combat these challenges of risks and uncertainties through judicious and logical way to get the destination of prosperity and progress in this sector of paramount importance. Knowledge of these risks can pave the way to get rid of various dilemmas pertinent to agriculture. In this book, various renowned authors' experiences and cognitions are presented in a comprehensive way to cover the diversified domains ofrisks involved in agriculture. The book is a blend of expertise to manifest various risks and uncertainties which are putting agriculture at stake. It reflects various risks and challenges with perspective and prospective angles. There are comprehensive glimpses ofrisks pertinent to agronomic practices, plant protection approaches, farm machine management, climate change, livestock, agricultural marketing and economic management. This book is worthwhile contribution for the academia/stakeholders related to agriculture and allied discipline to meet the future challenges regarding agricultural risks and their management.


Food engineering has recently emerged as a multidisciplinary field that apply fundamental engineering principles for designing and operating food processing equipment. The other important areas of knowledge are chemistry and microbiology: the understanding of which is crucial to deal chemical amid microbiological reactions occurring in a food system. The main responsibility of a food engineer is to deliver a safe and healthy food, while also minimizing the cost of production. This book is a result of the effort made by the faculty members of Department of Food Engineering. The editors are thankful to the contributors and the university administration for their support to accomplish this task. This book will serve as benchmark for the academic staff, students and for food engineers working in industrial environment. It is an excellent representation of fundamental concepts, thermodynamics, transport phenomena, and mathematically interpreted operations.

Agriculture in Pakistan

Pakistan is an agriculture country blessed with good natural resources i.e. land and water rcsourccs bond with diversified climate. It accounts for half of employed labour fotce and is the largest source of foreign exchange eamings. Due to well suited climate tied with the world's largest irrigation systems to support crop production; it is referred as a sparrow of gold. The main agricultural products alt cotton. wheat, rice, sugarcane fruits, and vegetables, in addition to milk, beef, mutton, skins and eggs. In this book the erninent scientists described the ideological and historical perspectives and contHbution of Muslim scientists in the field of agriculture. This book, dcwribcs the role of research. education and extension, and their collaborative efforts to fornmlate and disseminate the knowledge of agriculture to the end user. In this book, the role of different sections e.g. crops. livestock forests, agricultural machinery, seed, fertilizer and pesticide, and their associated etTorts ta boost agriculture and economy ofthe country is highlighted. Moreover, book also described various water sources, their conservation and etficicnt utilization for sustainable crop production. Moreover, land resources and agriculture land utilization. cropping systems and problem related to soils and thcir curcmcnt has been described. This book is an invaluable source of information for scientists, teachers and students in the fields ofagronomy, entonlology. environmental sciences. range management. land and water management, agriculture extension, business and sustainable livestock production systems.

Hamari Zrat